● 人口：約2,048万人 （2013年：スリランカ中央銀行 Annual Report 2013）
● 首都：スリ・ジャヤワルデナプラ・コッテ／人口：10万7,508人 （2012年センサス） ● 名目GDP総額：672億ドル （2013年）
● 1人あたりのGDP（名目）：3,162ドル （2013年）
● 実質GDP成長率：7.3％ （2013年）
● 為替レート：1ドル ≒ 約129.06 スリランカ ルピー （2013年 平均値）
1. WHY ‘VIRGIN COCONUT OIL’
Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) has been part of people’s diet and livelihoods in the tropical countries of Asia, the Pacific, South and Central America and Africa for thousands of years. In these areas, native meals are cooked with either coconut milk or coconut oil. The long history of usage and the diverse studies done to characterize and define the composition of the various components of the coconut tree, its fruit and the related products derived from it, established the coconut’s uniqueness and superiority among agricultural crops. Every part of the coconut tree and its fruit can be either consumed by humans or animals or converted into other valuable products. Desiccated coconut, coconut milk/cream in liquid and powder form, and coconut oil are the most popular edible commercial products derived from fresh coconut meat (kernel).
The term Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) refers to an oil that is obtained from fresh, mature kernel of the coconut by mechanical or natural means, with or without the use of heat and without undergoing chemical refining (Villarino et al., 2007). Since its first introduction, virgin coconut oil has captured the attention of vast majority of publics. The beneficial properties of VCO are fast spreading. The availability of VCO is increasing in the market especially in South East Asia involving the Philippine, Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia. Since its first appearance, VCO has gained wide attraction among the public and scientific community as functional food oil. From the health point of view, VCO has been documented as having more beneficial effects in clinical trials such as having more antioxidant potential compared to refined coconut oil. The underlying justification was based on the fact that VCO did not undergo the refining, bleaching, and deodorizing (RBD) process, which destroys some of the biologically active components such as phenolic compounds. Coconut oil mainly comprises medium chain fatty acids which have been shown in several studies to have antibiotic, anti-obesity, anti-cancer and other beneficial effects on the human body and coconut dietary fibred has been shown to have cholesterol-lowering effects.
(D. Bawalan and R. Chapman, 2006)
How is Virgin Coconut Oil different from other coconut oils?
When purchasing coconut oil, one must determine between “virgin” and “refined.” The determining characteristic of virgin coconut oils is that they are made from fresh coconuts, and they have the distinct aroma and taste of coconuts present. Tasteless coconut oils are probably made from copra, not fresh coconuts. There are also some oils that are made from copra that are not fully deodorized and have a taste to them. But these oils are refined also, despite marketing claims. You will be able to taste the difference when comparing with a Virgin Coconut Oil. There are many ways of refining coconut oil made from copra, some more beneficial than others. But virgin coconut oils start out with fresh coconuts, and do not need further refining as their natural antioxidant properties make them very stable oils.
2. HEALTH BENEFITS OF VCO
Virgin coconut oil is considered a nutraceutical, i.e. a substance that nourishes and also protects and heals. Studies have suggested the following.
• The medium chain (C8–C12) fats in coconut oil are similar in structure to the fats in mother’s milk that gives babies immunity from disease and have similar effects (Kabara 2000).
• Coconut oil possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and antioxidant properties that work together to protect the arteries from atherosclerosis and the heart from cardiovascular disease (Fife 2004).
• It is cholesterol-free, trans-fat free and heart-healthy (Verallo-Rowell 2005).
• It boosts the immune system (Dayrit 2005).
• It protects against heart disease by increasing high density lipoprotein which collects the excess or unused cholesterol in the body for excretion in the liver (Blackburn et al. 1989 cited in Dayrit 2005).
• Monolaurin, which is formed by the body when coconut oil is ingested, provides protection against infectious diseases caused by lipid-coated microorganisms (Kabara 2000). Diseases caused by such pathogens are not ordinarily cured by known antibiotics.
• It is digested easily without the need for bile and goes direct to the liver for conversion into energy (Dayrit 2005).
• It stimulates metabolism, boosts energy and prevents deposition of fats, thereby helping to prevent obesity (Dayrit 2003).
• It improves the nutritional value of food by increasing the absorption of vitamins, minerals and amino acids (Fife 2004).
• It inhibits the action of cancer-forming substances (Lim-Syliangco 1987).
(For further information on the health benefits of coconut oil, please refer to Appendix 1.)
As an edible oil, coconut oil is used for frying and cooking because of its good resistance to rancidity development (Bawalan and Chapman 2006). It is also used as a substitute for expensive butterfat in filled milk, filled cheese (reconstituted milk/cheese) and ice cream to make these products more affordable without altering their palatability. When hydrogenated, coconut oil is used as margarine, shortening and baking fat. Other edible applications are as follows:
• A source of fat in infant formulas and baby foods because it can be easily absorbed and digested;
• A spray oil for crackers, cookies and cereals to enhance flavour, increase shelf-life and impart a glossy appearance;
• An ingredient in confectionary.
The Spectrum of Coconut Products (PCA undated) states that in food preparations and in diet, coconut oil performs the following functions:
• It serves as an important source of energy in the diet.
• It supplies specific nutritional requirements.
• It provides the lubricating action in dressings and the leavening effect in baked items.
• It acts as a carrier and protective agent for fat-soluble vitamins.
• It contributes to palatability and enhances the flavour of food.
The major inedible use of coconut oil is as a raw material for;
(a) the manufacture of laundry and bath soaps,
(b) coconut chemicals for the production of biodegradable detergents, shampoos, shower gels and other cleaning agents,
(c) cosmetics and toiletries,
(d) foam boosting of non-coconut oil-based soaps, and
(e) the production of synthetic resins and plasticisers for plastic (Bawalan and Chapman 2006).
Among vegetable, seed and nut oils, VCO is considered unique in that it is the only oil that is multi- functional. It has more uses than normal coconut oil; and is a much better alternative if it can be made available in large quantities at an affordable price.
The current emerging major uses of VCO are:
• A hair and skin conditioner
• An oil base for various cosmetic and skin care products
• A carrier oil for aromatherapy and massage oils
• A nutraceutical and functional food.
4. HOW TO STORE VGO
Virgin Coconut Oil should be stored at room temperature and protected from light. It is not necessary to store it in a fridge. Virgin Coconut oil is very stable since it is unrefined and mostly saturated. The expiration dates on our Virgin Coconut Oils are for two years, and on our Expeller-pressed coconut oils they are 18 months, but they will usually be fine much longer than the expiration dates. It is recommended to store the oil out of direct sunlight. In the tropics coconut oil is almost always a liquid, since its melting point is about 76 degrees F. Always use a dry spoon and close the container tightly after use.
Almond Joy Protein Smoothie
2 cups unsweetened vanilla almond milk
1 scoop chocolate protein powder
1 tablespoon coconut oil
2 teaspoons cocoa powder
1/3 cup unsweetened coconut flakes
1-2 cups ice
Place almond milk, protein powder, coconut oil, and cocoa powder into the blender.
Add ice and blend on high until all ingredients are fully combined.
Pour into a glass, top with coconut flakes and enjoy!
Add instant coffee or a shot of espresso for an added energy boost!
Roasted Honey Glazed Sweet Potatoes
4-5 sweet potatoes, peeled and cut into 1-inch cubes
¼ cup coconut oil, melted plus more for drizzle
¼ cup honey
2 teaspoons cinnamon
1 pinch sea salt
1 pinch fresh ground pepper
Pre-heat oven to 350 degrees. Place sweet potato cubes onto a baking sheet.
Drizzle on melted coconut oil, honey, cinnamon, salt, and pepper over the sweet potatoes. Roast for 35-45 minutes, or until sweet potatoes are tender.
Take sweet potatoes from the oven and transfer them to a dish or serving platter. Drizzle with extra coconut oil if desired and sprinkle any additional cinnamon on top for decoration.
Serve with your favourite dish and enjoy!
Homemade Chocolate Cake
1 ¾ cup all-purpose flour
2 cups white sugar
¾ cup unsweetened cocoa powder
2 tablespoons baking soda
1 teaspoon baking powder
1 teaspoon salt
1 cup brewed coffee
1 cup buttermilk
½ cup coconut oil, melted
1 teaspoon vanilla extract
1. Preheat oven to 350 degrees. Spray a round or square cake pan with Coconut Oil. Set aside.
2. In a large bowl, combine flour, sugar, cocoa, baking soda, baking powder, and salt. Mix well.
3. Next, add eggs, coffee, buttermilk, coconut oil, and vanilla. Beat with a mixer for 2 minutes on medium speed. Pour mixture into cake pan and place in the oven for 30-40 minutes or until a toothpick comes out clean (from the centre of the cake).
4. Let the cake cool for 10 minutes, remove from cake pan, and then set on a wire rack to finish cooling.
Coconutoilcooking.com, (n.d.). Coconut Oil Cooking. [Online] Available at: http://coconutoilcooking.com/ [Accessed 18 Dec. 2015].
D. Bawalan, D. and R. Chapman, K. (2006). Virgin Coconut Oil- Production manual for micro-and village-scale processing. 1st ed. Bangkok.
D. Bawalan, D. (2011). Processing Manual for Virgin Coconut Oil, its Products and By-products for Pacific Island Countries and Territories. 1st Ed.
Tropicaltraditions.com, (n.d.). Coconut Oil: America's Best Source for Buying Coconut Oil. [Online] Available at: http://www.tropicaltraditions.com/ [Accessed 18 Dec. 2015].
Dr. Bruce Fife, N.D., in "The Coconut Oil Miracle", discussed some benefits of coconut oil. A more detailed presentation is available in "The Truth about Coconut Oil – The Drugstore In A Bottle (Conrad° S. Dayrit, M.D) ", a veritable collection of 18 years of advocacy about VCO especially written for the medical community.
Some benefits are summarized below:
1. Kills viruses that cause influenza, herpes, measles. hepatitis C, SARS, AIDS, and other illnesses.
2. Kills fungi and yeasts that cause candidiasis, ringworm, athlete's foot, thrush, diaper rash, and other infections.
3. Provides a nutritional source of quick energy.
4. Boosts energy and endurance, enhancing physical and athletic performance.
5. Improves digestion and absorption of other nutrients including vitamins, minerals, and amino acids.
6. Improves digestion and bowel function.
7. Relieves pain and irritation caused by hemorrhoids.
8. Reduces inflammation.
9. Supports tissue healing and repair.
10. Supports and aids immune system function.
11. Is heart healthy; improves cholesterol ratio reducing risk of heart disease.
12. Protects arteries from injury that causes atherosclerosis and thus protects against heart disease.
13. Helps prevent periodontal disease and tooth decay.
14. Does not deplete the body's antioxidant reserves like other oils do.
15. Improves utilization of essential fatty acids and protects them from oxidation.
16. Helps relieve symptoms associated with chronic fatigue syndrome.
17. Is lower in calories than all other fats.
18. Supports thyroid function.
19. Promotes loss of excess weight by increasing metabolic rate.
20. Promotes loss of excess weight by increasing metabolic rate.
21. Is utilized by the body to produce energy in preference to being stored as body fat like other dietary fats.
22. Helps prevent obesity and overweight problems.
23. Applied topically helps to form a chemical barrier on the skin to ward of infection.
24. Reduces symptoms associated the psoriasis, eczema, and dermatitis.
25. Supports the natural chemical balance of the skin.
26. Softens skin and helps relieve dryness and flaking.
27. Prevents wrinkles, sagging skin, and age spots.
28. Promotes healthy looking hair and complexion.
29. Provides protection form damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
30. Helps control dandruff.
31. Does not form harmful by-products when heated to normal cooking temperature like other vegetable oils do.
32. Has no harmful or discomforting side effects.
33. Is completely non-toxic to humans.
34. Trans -Fat free and Cholesterol free.
1. WHY 'CEYLON' TEA
Sri Lanka is one of the most famous countries to produce tea and is one of the most fabulously enjoyed beverages in Sri Lanka. Tea for us is literally second to water, every single person in our Nation enjoys at least three cups a day, and that is just minimally. Every occasion is celebrated with a cup of tea, and we would not substitute it for anything else. It’s the poor mans' drink of choice and the rich mans' as well. There is something about the wonderful beverage that leaves you wanting for more. The unique tastes and the impeccable aromas of Ceylon Tea is what makes it famous around the globe.
Sri Lanka (then called Ceylon) was introduced to Tea in the 1800's by James Taylor, he began a tea plantation in Kandy and started manufacturing tea. He made his first sale in Kandy and thus began the growth of the tea industry in Sri Lanka.
The ideal climatic conditions play a major role in the success of the growth of tea in Sri Lanka. 4% of the country's land is covered by tea plantations. The main tea growing areas are Nuwera Eliya, Kandy, Central Province, Bandarawela, Haputale, Uva Province, Galle, Matara, Southern Province, Ratnapura, Kegalle, Sabaragamuwa Province. The best tea are gathered from late June to the end of August in the eastern districts and from the beginning of February to mid-March in western districts.
Skilfully plucking the tea leaf is essential to the final quality of the tea, the two leaves and a bud, that is where the flavour and the aroma of tea is present, and this is plucked by women. Sri Lanka is one of the few countries that each leaf is plucked by hand instead of machinery, if they were to use machinery some of the coarse leaves as twigs would be mixed with the proper leaves which could destroy the flavour of the tea. The skilful women pluck around 15 to 20 kilos of tea leaves to be weighed and sent to the nearby tea factories.
Ceylon Black Tea is the most famously known tea around the globe. The high-grown black tea has a honey golden liquor and light and is among the best teas which has a distinct flavour, aroma and strength. The low-grown teas has a burgundy brown liquor and stronger in taste. And the mid-grown teas are strong, rich and full-bodied. Ceylon black tea is famous around the world and is used as the base for many blends such as Earl Grey tea, and many other fruit flavoured teas.
Black tea is not the only tea produced, Ceylon green tea is mainly grown in Idalgashinna in the Uva Province. The Ceylon Green Tea generally has a fuller body, and has a pungent, malty and nutty flavour. Green tea in Sri Lanka has its own characteristics, they are darker in both the dry and infused leaf, and has a rich flavour different from other green teas. Much of the green teas produced in Sri Lanka has an acquired taste and are exported to the North African and the Middle Eastern markets. Other than the Black and the Green tea Sri Lanka specializes in White Tea which is also known as 'silver tips'. This is one of the priciest teas in Sri Lanka, price of a kilo of White Tea in higher than that of Green and Black tea. White Tea was first grown in Nuwera-Eliya. The tea is grown, harvested and rolled by hand and the leaves are dried and withered in the sun. it has a delicate and light liquoring and contains notes of pine and honey and a golden coppery infusion.
Sri Lankan tea is a great success in the international markets, and despite the ever growing competition from India and China, Sri Lanka remains one of the world's top tea exporters. The most important international markets of Sri Lankan tea are the Middle East, Russia, Iraq, Iran, Egypt, the UK and Japan.
The 'Lion Logo' in the packages of the tea produced in Sri Lanka is an important factor. It is closely monitored by the Sri Lankan Tea board and if a manufacturer is to acquire this particular logo, they need to go through a series of inspections that are done by the Sri Lankan Tea Board and if they pass these inspections they are allowed to use the Lion Logo which depicts as 'Pure Ceylon Tea- Packed in Sri Lanka'.
Ceylon Tea is indeed exquisitely famous for its rich tastes and aromas, and it is made with a lot of care and love, so that everybody around the globe has the privilege of tasting such a wonderful beverage.
2. BEST TYPE OF TEA
In assessing the value of Ceylon tea, some of the properties which tea experts take into consideration are appearance of the made tea, colour of the infused leaf, as well as colour, strength, quality, aroma and flavour of the brewed liquor. The ultimate criterion of a ‘good quality’ tea is however the subjective assessment of expert professional tea tasters.
Ceylon tea is divided into various grades. These grade names are an indication of size or appearance of manufactured leaf and not of its quality. Briefly, Ceylon teas are divided into two groups: (1) the Leaf grades such as were originally made by the Ceylon pioneers, and (2) the smaller Broken grades which are in style today.
Leaf grades are usually divided into:
· Orange Pekoe (O.P)
· Pekoe (Pek.)
· Souchong (Sou.)
Broken grades are divided into:
· Broken Orange Pekoe (B.O.P.)
· Broken Pekoe (B.P.)
· Broken Pekoe Souchong (B.P.S.)
· Broken Orange Pekoe Fannings (B.O.P.F.)
· Dust (D.)
(See Appendix 1 for detailed tea grading system)
The grades may be described as follows:
· O.P. -- Long, thin, wiry leaves which sometimes contain tip. The liquors are light or pale in color.
· Pek. -- The leaves of this grade are shorter and not so wiry as O.P., but the liquors generally have more color.
· Sou. -- A bold and round leaf, with pale liquors.
· B.O.P. -- This grade is one of the most sought after. It is much smaller than any of the leaf grades and contains tip. The liquors have good color and strength.
· B.P. -- Slightly larger than B.O.P., with rather less color in the cup; useful primarily as a filler in a blend.
· B.P.S -- A little larger that B.P. and in consequence lighter in the cup, but also used as filler in a blend.
· B.O.P.F. -- This grade also is much sought after, especially in the U.K., and fetches high prices. It is much smaller than B.O.P. and its main virtues are quick brewing, with good colour in the cup.
In addition, there are various “Flowery” variants of the main grades (e.g., F.O.P and F.B.O.P.). Only a small quantity of the Leaf and Flowery grades is produced in Ceylon. They find their chief market in North America and a few European countries. Few of the Up-country Ceylons make these grades at all, their stable lines being B.O.P. and B.O.P.F. such as are so dominant in the U.K., Australia and (less so) in South Africa. The demand appears to be for ever smaller and smaller leaf, and a great deal of cutting or milling is resorted to today both in countries of origin and by the packers. “Tippy” or “Flowery” teas (such grades as Flowery Orange Pekoe) are still made in Ceylon and fetch high prices in most Western tea markets. They are extremely more expensive to produce than the run-of-the-mill grades, since they involve sorting out the tip by hand.
3. STORAGE & SHELF-LIFE
There are very important rules to observe in regard to storage of tea.
Keep fresh tea away from air, heat, light, and moisture. Each of these will cause the tea to deteriorate or to go stale. Always store tea in a clean, dry airtight container free of foreign odorous. Remember to use a dry spoon, always, and to close the container tightly after use to retain aroma and flavor.
Place the loose leaf tea in a non-plastic container. Preferably use a container that is made from tin or aluminum. Plastic can transfer an odor and spoil the taste of the tea. It should be airtight; if not, place the tea in a sealable bag first, although be careful of the odor of the bag if it's plastic. After usage, tightly close or seal the container every single time. This ensures that the tea maintains its freshness, flavor and aroma.
Store the tea in a dark, cool, and dry location. Light and moisture are tea's biggest enemies as they will activate enzymes that contribute to its decomposition. The perfect place to store tea is in a pantry that has an automatic light switch and its temperature constant, unaffected by climate change. A kitchen cabinet is the next best location. Keep flavored tea apart from plain varietal or origin (pure) teas. Otherwise, the flavored tea will overpower all the other teas in the cubby. Conduct a sniff test before storing. Blended teas may have a flavor that is overwhelming. Keep smoky teas well separated; they are the most potent.
Buy smaller quantities of tea and drink them faster to retain freshness.
Tightly seal bag or close tin after each use.
Place tea over the stove. The heat and moisture will harm it.
Place tea in the refrigerator or freezer. This will burn the taste and kill the aroma.
Store tea in a garage. It will be exposed to light and moisture which are the primary causes of deteriorating tea.
Purchase tea that comes in a see-through glass container. You may not know how long that tea has been sitting on the shelf.
Do not store tea along with other pungent grocery and toilet items such as oils, soaps, dried fish and spices.
Expiration/ Shelf life
The general rule of thumb regarding tea's freshness is that you should consume it within a year of purchase, noting that some of the more delicate teas may start losing their flavour after 6 months. Some types will last more than a year, if well stored.
Tea has a shelf-life that varies with storage conditions and type of tea. Black tea has a longer shelf-life than green tea. Tea stays freshest when stored in a dry, cool, dark place in an air-tight container. Black tea stored in a bag inside a sealed opaque canister may keep for two years. Green tea loses its freshness more quickly, usually in less than a year. Storage life for all teas can be extended by using desiccant packets or oxygen absorbing packets, and by vacuum sealing.
When storing green tea, discreet use of refrigeration or freezing is recommended. In particular, drinkers need to take precautions against temperature variation.
Improperly stored tea may lose flavor, acquire disagreeable flavors or odors from other foods, or become moldy.
4. HEALTH BENEFITS
Tea, one popular beverage, affordable and loved by billions of people around the world, is entirely beneficial and may in fact have preventive and curative health properties when consumed regularly.
Medical benefits have been claimed for tea for as long as it has been drunk. The origins of the ‘cuppa’ are lost to the ages, yet when we first hear of tea it is in a medicinal connection: a Chinese text, The Divine Farmer’s Herb-Root Classic, dating from around 250BC, recommends infusions of tea-leaves for the treatment of tumours, abscesses, bladder ailments and lethargy. Since then, generation after generation of medical authorities have sung the praises of tea; and today, a popular encyclopaedia lists no less than 22 separate claimed health benefits for the beverage, ranging from protection against HIV infection to the elimination of bad breath.
WHAT’S IN THE CUP?
Tea is processed from the tender shoots of the plant Camellia sinensis, typically the bud and the first two leaves of the tea plant. ‘Herbal’ teas are usually made from plants other than tea and will not have the same taste or health benefits.
Tea, though it has almost no calories, contains a surprising quantity of nutrients and medicinal ingredients. Among the former are vitamins such as thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin, biotin and inositol. Vitamin E is also present in tea. Tea is also rich in potassium although its content of sodium, a related metal associated with vascular disease when consumed in large quantities, is very low. This makes tea ideal for people suffering from high blood pressure. Tea also contains calcium, zinc and manganese.
In addition to these nutrients, tea-drinking promotes dental health because of the fluoride it contains. Fluoride also helps support bone mineralization.
The polyphenols found in tea are important anti-oxidants, which scour the blood of ‘free radicals’ that have been linked to cancer and other diseases.
(See Appendix 2 for more details on Health Benefits of Tea)
5. HOW YOU MAKE A GREAT CUP OF CEYLON TEA
Use only the finest Ceylon tea.
Bring the water to boil. And rinse the tea pot and tea cups with hot water.
Pour the boiling water into the pot containing the tea leaves.
Keep the lid closed while allowing the tea to brew for 4-5 minutes. To get the best taste over brewing is to be avoided.
Strain the tea out into cups thereafter. Use a "Tea cosy" to keep the pot warm should there be a delay in serving.
The quantity of tea leaves used will vary according to taste. Generaly 10g of tea makes 4 cups. Experiment till you get it just right. Adding sugar and warm milk will reduce the effects of over brewing.
Anon, (2015). 1st ed. [ebook] Available at: http://www.ksre.k-state.edu/humannutrition/foodstorage-documents/Virginia348-960_pdf.pdf [Accessed 14 Dec. 2015].
Dilmahtea.com, FAQ’s about tea | Welcome to Dilmah - the Freshest & Finest Tea. [online] Available at: http://www.dilmahtea.com/faqs-about-tea [Accessed 14 Dec. 2015].
Pureceylontea.com, Sri Lanka Tea Board Official Web Site. [online] Available at: http://www.pureceylontea.com [Accessed 14 Dec. 2015].
Tea Research Institute Sri Lanka, (n.d.). [online] Available at: http://www.tri.lk/ [Accessed 15 Dec. 2015].
Tea.lk, Tea Grades | TEA.LK. [online] Available at: http://www.tea.lk/types-of-tea/tea-grades/ [Accessed 15 Dec. 2015].
BOP Sp – Larger in size than a BOP lack and clean in appearance. Note: BOP & BOP special be treated as two grades, but for cataloging purposes treat as one grade.
BOP 1 – Should be wiry and twisted, but shorter than an OP1.
FBOP – Smaller/shorter than BOP1 with presence of tips, but larger than FBOPF1.
FBOP 1 – Long, twisted, wiry leaf. Fairly tippy. Longer than BOP1.
PEKOE – Shotty, curly or semi-cirly leaf of large size of any elevation.
PEKOW1 – Same as Pekoe, but smaller in size than Pekoe of any elevation. This replaces the Flowery Pekoe grade.Note: Pekoe and Fekoe 1 will be treated as two grades, but for cataloguing purposes treat as one grade.
FBOPF (FF) – Similar in size to BOP……… and must contain tips.
FBOPF 1 (FF1) – Larger than BOP. Smaller than a FBOP with a show of tips.
FBOPF – Similar in size to BOP with a fair presence of tips.
FBOPF Ex. Sp1 - Leafy and must have an attractive show of golden or silver tips with little black leaf.
OP 1 – Long, wiry well or partly twisted.
OP - Less wiry than OP1, but much more twisted than OPA.
BP – (Off Grades) – Should e choppy, hard leaf.
BOP 1A – (Off Grades) – Any flak leaf without stalk and fiber (Clean tea).
BM (BROKENS) - (Off Grades) Mixed flaky leaf tea. Can have more fiber and stalk than BOP 1A.
BT – (Off Grades) – All mixed teas of varying sizes, with or without stalk and fiber.
FNGS 1 (FGS1) – (Off Grades) – Flaky leaf of small size. Can contain more fiber than BOPF, but reasonably clean.
FNGS (FGS) – (Off Grades) – Same as Fannings 1. Can be more fiber and uneven and not as clean as Fannings1.
DUST1 - Smaller than BOPF. (Rainy even well-made and reasonably clean)
DUST - (Off Grades) ………… size to Dust 1. Could be flaky and contain some fiber.
BP1 – Equivalent to size of a high grown BOP, but granular.
BP Special – Larger particle size than BP1.
PF 1 – Equivalent in size to grainy high grown BOPF, but granular.
OF – Smaller than the PF 1. Larger than PD.
PF – (Off Grades) – Similar or slightly larger than PF1 and may contain some fiber.
PD – Grainy Dust grade. Should be smaller than OF.
DUST 1 – Less grainy than PD. Clean.
DUST - (Off Grades) – Inferior to Dust 1. Could be powdery and fibry.
In addition, there are the various “Flowery” varieties of the main grades (e.g. FOP and FBOPF).This tea possesses extraordinary quality in liquor and is composed almost entirely of small golden tip which are the extreme ends of the small succulent shoots of the plant, and the preparation of such tea is course most costly, since it involves sorting out the tip by hand.
Only small quantities of the leafy and flowery grades are produced. The former finds their chief markets in South America, and to a lesser degree in North Africa and a few North African countries. The latter is mostly popular in the Middle East, particularly Iran. Few of the up-country estates make these grades at all. Their stable lines are BOP and BOPF such as are dominant in Britain, Australia and South Africa. The demand appears to be forever smaller and smaller leaf, and a great deal of cutting or milling is resorted today, both in countries of origin and by the packers.
Source: Forbes & Walker
Extreme or bizarre claims must, of course, be taken with a grain of salt. Far more trustworthy are the benefits proclaimed or suggested by genuine scientific research. When subjected to chemical analysis, tea turns out to contain a number of ingredients whose health-promoting properties are well established. It is also nutritious: taken with milk, four cups of tea a day can provide:
approximately 17% of the recommended intake for calcium
5% for zinc
22% for Vitamin B2
5% for folic acid
5% for Vitamins B1 and B6
The manganese and potassium in a cup of tea also helps maintain the body’s fluid balance.
Besides these ingredients, tea contains a unique amino acid, theanine, which has a relaxing effect on humans and also assists the natural immune response to infection. The modest amount of caffeine in tea also acts as a mild mood enhancer.
Perhaps the most significant health-promoting properties of tea lie in the antioxidants or ‘flavonoids’ it contains. Antioxidants are compounds that help remove harmful toxins from the bloodstream, and tea contains uniquely high concentrations of them. Research has shown that consuming such antioxidants can lower the risk of heart disease, strokes and cancer.
There are also indications that antioxidants in tea may help protect against Alzheimer’s disease and age-related memory impairment. Black and green tea both contain higher levels of antioxidants than common fruits or vegetables.
Even if we disregard extravagant, scientifically unsupported claims, the established health benefits of tea are numerous. Many of these benefits are preventive, suggesting that a few cups of tea a day can help stave off heart disease, diabetes, hypertension and many forms of cancer.
Animal and in vitro studies have shown that tea polyphenols may react directly with and neutralise chemical carcinogens, including those causing cancers of the skin, lungs, oral cavity, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, liver, pancreas, bladder, and prostate. In addition to the antioxidant ‘scavenging’ activity mentioned above, tea polyphenols may also alter enzymes involved in tumour formation, inhibit malignant cell proliferation and act against forms of bacteria that promote gastric cancers. According to some American studies, tea drinking may also protect against breast and ovarian cancers.
Tea and heart disease
Epidemiological studies have shown that regular tea consumption is linked to decreased risk from heart disease and stroke. While the data from different tests contains some inconsistencies, ‘meta-analyses’ comparing all the available population studies have tended to confirm the relationship, with regular and frequent tea drinkers showing risk levels up to 20% lower than those who do not, or rarely, consume it. Another study suggested that drinking three cups of tea a day reduces the risk of myocardial infarction by 11%.
Tea and oral health
Containing significant amounts of fluoride, tea can contribute considerably to daily fluoride intake, helping reduce tooth decay. Tea polyphenols may also inhibit the growth of bacteria which cause decay, or make them less harmful to the teeth. Recent research indicates that tea could also inhibit the growth of harmful micro-organisms that cause inflammation and oral diseases, including certain oral cancers.
Tea and your digestion
It has been found that consumption of tea can reduce the quantity of harmful microorganisms such as Enterobacteriacea found in the digestive tract, simultaneously increasing the number of beneficial ones and promoting digestive health.
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